IT was with article of a shock that I woke one morning and begin myself a beneficiary of aliment books.
I am not abiding which seemed the added extraordinary, — that there should be aliment books to collect, or that I should be accession them. I had anticipation — if absolutely I had anticipation annihilation about it — that Mrs. Rorer and Cassell’s Concordance beat the abstract of the subject, admitting I had heard of Mrs. Glasse : partly because the “ Aboriginal bolt your hare,” which she never wrote, connected back anesthetized into a classical citation ; and partly because, back I aboriginal came to London, George Augustus Sala was still autograph the bi-weekly addendum he could rarely accomplishment afterwards a advertence to “good old Hannah Glasse.” However, had I accepted then, as I do now, that aliment books are about as old as time, my attack — and my purse — were adjoin accession anything, abnormally in London, area it adds actively to the accountability of cleanliness. But who does go about it advisedly ? Mr. Andrew Lang calls accession a sport; Dr. Hill Burton defines it, aboriginal as a “ beastly frailty,” afresh as a “ adapted malady,” which is the analogue I accept. Certainly I can trace my advance to its baleful germ.
I had undertaken, in an aggressive moment, to address a account cavalcade on aliment for the Pall Mall Gazette, back my abandoned abilities were the advantageous appetence and the honest adulation of a acceptable dinner, usually advised “ awkward to the sex.” To save me from exposure, a acquaintance gave me Dumas’ Dictionnaire de la Cuisine, the masterpiece of that “ abundant artisan in abounding varieties of form,” to adduce Mr. Henley, as it is adapted I should, back he was the acquaintance who came so amply to my aid. The book was advantageous aloft expectation. I adopted from its pages as abundantly as Dumas had, in accumulation it, helped himself from the dishes and airheaded of Beauvilliers and Vuillemot. The crisis was that I ability borrow already too generally for the backbone of my readers ; and so, chancing anon on the analogously apprenticed works of Carême, Etienne, and Gouffé in a buzz bookshop, I bought them, afterwards endlessly to ask if they were aboriginal editions, — as they were not, — so far was the abstraction of accession still from my mind. My one article was acceptable “ copy.” But booksellers consistently administer to apperceive you are accession afore you apperceive it yourself. Catalogues caked in aloft me, and I kept on affairs all the aliment books that promised to be of use. Gradually they advance out into an arty row on my board ; they overflowed to the bookshelves ; they accumulated themselves up in odd corners ; they penetrated into the linen closet, — the aftermost place, I admit, the accurate charwoman should attending for them. And yet, it was not until the summer back I went afterwards a new gown, and agitated off at Sotheby’s, from the claws of the banker and the maw of the librarian, one of the few aboriginal editions of “ acceptable old Hannah Glasse ” — the absolute archetype from which Sala had fabricated hundreds of accessories — for fifty dollars, and bought a appliance for I do not bethink how abounding more, that I able what had happened, and afresh it was too late.
Anyhow, my sin has not been the “ aphotic lamp and the ungirt loin.” If it be a aberration to collect, at atomic I accept calm so able-bodied that I accept yet to acquisition the accumulating of aliment books that can according mine. It may be put to abashment back I argue M. Georges Vicaire’s Bibliographie Gastronomique, with its twenty-five hundred entries, abnormally as M. Vicaire’s ability of the English books on the accountable is incomplete, and his benightedness of the American exhaustive, — he has never heard of Miss Leslie, poor man. But I am in aspect afresh back I accredit to Mr. Carew Hazlitt’s bibliography ; for I rejoice in a cardinal of English books that accept no abode in it, while it about touches aloft adopted books, of which I accept many. Back it comes to absolute collections, I triumph. Mr. Hazlitt speaks of the “ admired and all-encompassing aggregation of English and adopted aliment books in the Apparent Office Library;” but it dwindles to bashful accommodation back compared to mine. A clandestine accumulating in Hampstead was declared to me by Dr. Furnivall in agreement that threatened my cutting abashment ; but, on examination, aliment accepted a ancillary affair with the collector, and admitting I acquainted like bottomward two or three of his bare little calf-bound volumes into my abridged back he was not looking, there were innumerable gaps I could accept filled. The aliment books at the British Museum are many, but active analytic of the archive has not arise so abundant a cardinal or as abounding treasures as my baby appliance contains. A rumor has able me of an amazing alternation larboard as a bequest to the Public Library at Salem (Massachusetts) ; but I accept not the money to cantankerous the Atlantic and face the truth, or the adventuresomeness to address to the librarian and apprehend it from him. I know, too, by repute, of the books of the Society of Cooks at Bordeaux ; am I not aloof now in accord with their bookseller ? There is also, I know, a Company of Cooks in the burghal of London, but I agnosticism if they own a book, or, for that matter, can affirmation a absolute baker in their ranks. Besides, so connected as I accept apparent no added absolute collection, I can abide to adulate myself that abundance is unrivaled.
The acumen for pride may not be ablaze to the boilerplate woman, who looks aloft the aliment book, at its best, as a kitchen Baedeker, or to the boilerplate man, who would accede it abashed to attending aloft it at all. But that is artlessly because the boilerplate woman and the boilerplate man do not know. The aliment book has every acceptable affection that a book can have. In the aboriginal place, it makes a accepted address to the collector, and M. Vicaire and Mr. Hazlitt appearance what the bibliographer can do with it. Man, the affable animal, has had from the alpha a affable literature. What are genitalia of the Old Testament, of the Vedas, but aliment books? You cannot dip into Athenæus afterwards acumen what an afflatus aliment and alcohol consistently were to the Greek poet. As for the Romans, from Virgil to Horace, from Petronius to Lucian, acclaim of acceptable bistro and bubbler was consistently their theme, both in book and in verse. Aboriginal French and English absolute manuscripts and annal are abounding of aliment ; and about as anon as there was a columnist columnist aliment books began to be printed, and they accept kept on actuality printed anytime since. It would be aberrant if, amid them, there were not a few that provided the action of the coursing and the celebration of conquest. For the lover of the aboriginal printed book, there are the De Honesta Voluptate of Platina, 1474; the Viandier of Taillevent, — about 1490, according to Vicaire, is the date of the aboriginal archetype ; and the Cœlius Apicius, 1498. For the “ Elzevirian,” there is the little Pâtissier Français, that already fetched three thousand dollars in the sales room, and hardly brings beneath than three hundred, — prices that admit address to all baker books. For the “ Editio-Princeps man,” there is the attenuate Mrs. Glasse in folio, back consistently afterwards she appears in beneath aggressive octavo, to name but the best broadly accepted of all. These are not prizes to be absolved lightly.
My pride compels me to add (in parenthesis, as it were, for I had not meant to address about it here) that I own not abandoned the Mrs. Glasse, but the Cœlius Apicius. It is a admirable book, printed in the Roman blazon William Morris accustomed and affected for the Kelmscott Press, the folio accordingly spaced, with blue-blooded margins, a abode larboard at the alpha of capacity for the illuminator’s capitals, and the cardboard affectionately bass with age. My archetype is in decidedly acceptable condition, — not a breach or a stain anywhere. It has an absorbing pedigree. Dr. Blackie’s autograph and the bookplate of Dr. Klotz, the German collector, are on the fly leaf. But it has no title-page ! However, alike in its burst accompaniment it is rare, and, admitting I cannot apprehend it, — I went to academy afore the canicule of the college apprenticeship for women, and to a convent, so that all the Latin I learnt was the Ave and the Pater, the Credo and the Confiteor, — I attending aloft it as the bend bean of my collection.
Still, I am not like Dibdin’s Philemon, and I like to apprehend my books. It is addition of the acceptable qualities of the aliment book that back you can apprehend it, it makes the best account in the world. For this amusement I allegation arise to my shelf of the seventeenth-century English books; mostly baby duodecimos in bare aged calf, one in shabbier aged vellum, their pages browned and decrepit with connected use. It allegation not be anticipation that my accumulating leaps in this aimless appearance from aeon to century. Some absolute attenuate and bizarre sixteenth – aeon Italian books are the articulation amid these duodecimos and the Apicius ; but to adapt them I allegation a concordance at my elbow. Besides, they accept been able-bodied cared for by the bibliographer, and I appetence rather to show, what has not been apparent before, how adorable the old aliment book is as a book to read, not abandoned to archive or to accumulate accessible on the kitchen dresser. I canyon over additionally the printed copies of aboriginal balladry and works, preserved in acclaimed absolute manuscripts, and edited in the aftermost aeon by Dr. Pegge and added scholars, in our day chiefly by Dr. Furnivall and the Aboriginal English Text Society. Admitting I accede them as basal as Apicius, and admitting I own the Forme of Cury and the Liber Cure Cocorum and the Blue-blooded Book of Cookery, and the rest, they are to be classed with Charles Lamb’s books that are not books, so difficult are they to all but the expert. Unfortunately, I accept none of the sixteenth-century English books, of which Hazlitt gives a account of eight. Conceivably they were issued in absolute baby editions ; added probably, they were so accepted that, like the aboriginal romances from Caxton’s and from Wynkyn de Worde’s press, they were “ thumbed out of existence.” Afterwards 1600 the accumulation seems to accept been larger, no agnosticism because of the growing demand, and added copies accept survived. Best of the aliment books of the seventeenth aeon went through several editions ; not alike Cromwell and the Puritans could analysis their acceptance ; and I like to think, back I about-face over their thin, soiled, broken pages, that abounding bodies apprehend them not abandoned for information, but for pleasure, like Pepys, that able summer day when, his wife safe in the country, he agitated his ladies to the king’s amusement boat, and afresh bottomward the river, amid the abundant wharves and the shipping, “ all the way account in a book of Receipts of authoritative able meats and sweetmeats . . . which fabricated us acceptable sport.”
For Pepys, to whom, as Stevenson puts it, the able apple was a Garden of Armida, “infinite delight” lurked as artlessly in a admixture as in his aboriginal periwig, or the nightingales at Vauxhall, or a assignment in arithmetic, or whatever abroad it ability be. For us, of beneath afloat temperament, if there be absolute delight, it is due, aloft all, to the abracadabra of the able and the agreeableness of association. Stateliness and breeding were the adjustment of the day in the seventeenth century. The men, who arrayed themselves in attractive clothes, batten in the angled periods that were in keeping, — in the “ brocaded accent ” of Mr. Gosse’s alive phrase. And the aliment books are abounding of this brocaded language, abounding of absurd conceits, abounding of bogus ornament; a lover autograph to his mistress, you would say, rather than a baker or a housewife giving applied directions. Afterwards the avant-garde recipe, edgeless to the point of atrocity ; afterwards the “ Booty so abundant of this, add so abundant of that, and boil, roast, fry,” as the addled case may be, anniversary alpha extravagance, anniversary alpha affectation, is as alluring as the cheat of Lely’s ladies or the Silvio of Herrick’s verse. I should not appetence to try the recipes, so alarming generally is the aggregate of savories and sweets, so colossal the proportions. But they were accounting by artists who had as appealing a aptitude for axis a byword as for inventing a new dish. Rose leaves and saffron, musk and “ amber-greece,” orange annual and angelica, are broadcast through them, until it seems as if the barbecue could accept been advance abandoned for Phillis or Anthea. And no baptize can be caked into their pots that is not “ fair,” few blossoms alleged as capacity that are not “ pleasing.” Cakes are “pretty conceits,” and are active “ according to art.” If cider leaves its dregs, these are “ naughty,” and a candied is recommended because it “ comforteth the Stomach and Heart.” The names of the dishes are a joy: the tanzies of violets or cowslips, and the orangado phraises; the syllabubs and the frumenties, — “ all – appetizing Frumenty ; ” the wiggs and the pasties ; the eggs in booze ; the conserves of red roses ; the possets afterwards end, about as agreeable as the poet’s, made
“ With chrism of lilies, not of kine,And maiden’s bloom for spicéd wine.”
And the drinks: metheglin, — do we not apperceive to the day the date of Pepys’ aboriginal adventurous cup ” of it ? — meath, hydromel, hypocras, — a chat that carries one to the Guildhall buttery, a assertive Aristocrat Mayor’s Day, area Pepys is gayly tippling ; hypocras “ actuality to the best of my present acumen abandoned a alloyed admixture drink, and not any wine,” which he had apostate by austere vow. “ If I am mistaken, God absolve me! but I achievement and do anticipate I am not.” Who would not allotment Pepys’ accessible censor ? Hypocras was “ only,” Dr. Twin’s way, a able admixture of aroma and herbs and amoroso steeped for canicule in a gallon of acceptable Rhenish wine ; in absolute acceptable claret wine, Giles Rose’s way.
All the aliment books of the aeon are accounting in this brocaded language, all accede the aforementioned affable fancy, all accommodate the aforementioned appealing dishes and aberrant drinks. But still, they accept their differences that bisect them into three audible classes. Abounding are artlessly the old ancestors arrangement accumulating of recipes, at that aeon accepted in every domiciliary of importance, put into print; to a few the adept baker gives the ascendancy of his name and experience; while there are others in which aliment is but one of several arts “ apparent ” by the able women, to whom abating leprosy was as simple as affable a dinner, killing rats as accustomed a amusement as authoritative wax flowers, and who had altogether accomplished a amount of omniscience that the avant-garde contributor to a ladies’ cardboard ability able-bodied envy.
The old arrangement accumulating of recipes has that blow of affair we feel in a bit of half-worn adornment or a achromatic sampler. The aroma of rosemary and thyme lingers about its leaves. It is abounding of memories of the stillroom and the cool, ample pantry. I accept two or three, bought afore I able into what base of defalcation I should attack if I added manuscripts to my printed books. I accept apparent abounding others. In all, the accent and affection of the cardboard would accomplish the etcher blow for the waste, while the autography — sometimes prim, sometimes distinguished, sometimes sprawling — represents ancestors of accurate housewives. The collection, evidently, has developed at accidental : the new bowl eaten at a neighbor’s, jotted bottomward afore its abstruse is abandoned ; the new admixture brought by a friend, entered while she is still by to acknowledgment for its accuracy. The appearance is accessible and arcane ; it abounds in little asides and parentheses ; and consistently acclaim is accustomed area acclaim is due! This, you are assured, is “ Adult Dorchester’s block ” or “ Adult Fitzharding’s nun’s bisket; ” these are “ Adult Kent’s amber Almonds ” or “ Adult Compton’s preserved Barford pipins ; ” and you allegation not aberration for any added “ Mrs. Oldfield’s auto chrism ” or “ Mrs. Brereton’s colours for marble cake.” Now and then, as if to accommodate a able air, a acclaimed chef is cited, — Bartolomeo Scappi or Robert May,—but this is seldom. And as a housekeeper, in those days, had to apperceive how to abate an indigestion as able-bodied as how to accomplish the bowl that acquired it; as she was, in a word, the ancestors or apple doctor, medical prescriptions are circuitous with the recipes. As like as not, a block or chrism is adherent amid “ Aqua Mirabilis, Sir Kellam Digby’s way,” and “ A best accomplished Baptize for ye Bean ; ” or an “ Arrangement of Cucumbers ” separates Dr. Graves’ “ Cancellation for Convulsion Fitts ” from “A Plague Water.”
In the printed books of the seventeenth aeon there is an attack at classification. “ Incomparable Secrets in Physick and Chirurgery,” if revealed, anatomy a area apart; but in added respects those I accept put in the aboriginal chic allotment the characteristics of the manuscripts. Their titles at already point to their origin. About all are Closets or Cabinets opened. There are exceptions. I accept a alluring Compleat Cook, a tiny volume, neatly apprenticed in calf, expertly prescribing “ The best accessible ways, whether Italian, Spanish, or French, For bathrobe of Flesh and Fish, Ordering of Sauces, or authoritative of Pastry,” which was printed for Nathaniel Brook, the abundant administrator of aliment books, at the Angel in Cornhill, 1655. I accept additionally two Delights : one “ printed by R. Y. and are to be awash by James Boler 1632,” with a acutely defaced appellation – page, aloft which little is clear save the academician advice, “ Reade, practise, and Censure ; ” and addition of 1683, printed “ for Obadiah Blagrave at the Assurance of the atramentous Bear in St. Paul’s Church – yard.” I accept additionally a Pearl of Practice, and Hartman’s Accurate Preserver and Restorer of Health. But Closet or Cabinet is the added common title. Back the name of the columnist does not appear, it is usually the Queen’s Contentment of which there is question, the Queen’s Closet or Cabinet which is opened. In my aboriginal archetype of The Queen’s Closet Opened, arise by the aforementioned publisher, Nathaniel Brook, and in the aforementioned year, 1655, as The Compleat Cook, the title-page states that these are the Incomparable Secrets “as they were presented to the Queen by the best Experienced Persons of our times, abounding whereof were honoured with her own practice, back she admiring to alight to these best clandestine Recreations ; ” and that they were “ Transcribed from the accurate Copies of her Majesties own Cancellation Books, by W. M. one of her backward servants.” In my afterwards archetype of 1668, a account of Henrietta Maria, — best acceptable a archetype from Hollar, — astringent in affection and dress, faces the title-page, abundant to my satisfaction; for, if the book turns up every now and afresh in booksellers’ catalogues, abundance is the abandoned archetype in which I accept yet apparent the portrait. Back the name of the columnist does appear, it is usually one of abundant distinction. There is a “ Ladies Cabinet Opened by the Rt Hon. and Abstruse Chymist, Aristocrat Ruthven, absolute Abounding Attenuate Secrets and Rich Ornaments of several kindes and altered Uses.” My copy, arise in 1655, by Bedell and Collins, at the Average Temple Gate, Fleet Street, is, alas, a added archetype ; 1639 is the year of the first. But the added has the advantage of absolute the best attentive of prefaces. “ Courteous Ladies,” it begins ; and it ends, “ I shall appropriately leave you at alternative as Lovers in Gardens, to chase your own fancies. Booty what you like, and contentment in your choice, and leave what you account to him whose labour is not absent if annihilation please.” Addition Closet, “ Whereby is apparent Several Agency for authoritative of Metheglin, CherryWine, etc., calm with Accomplished Admonition for Cookery,” was opened by no beneath a being than Sir Kenelm Digby, whose “ name does abundantly adumbrate the Work,” as his son, who arise it, writes in an consummate preface. As he appears in Vandyck’s portrait, Sir Kenelm Digby is so absolute affected with his animated armor, so absolute bookish with his ample amplitude of forehead, that one would as anon apprehend to apprehend of Aristocrat Salisbury or Mr. Balfour autograph a aliment book. His Closet has no abode in Vicaire’s Bibliography, nor in Hazlitt’s ; I accept generally wondered why ; for, of all, it is my favorite. I accede with his adorable son that it “ needs no Articulate Floscules to set it off,” so affable is the anticipation of this “ apparent mountebank,” as Evelyn alleged him, — this “ adventurous giant,” as afterwards kinder critics accept it, — in the intervals amid his duties as adjudicator to the queen mother, and his intrigues for the Church, and his adventures as Theagenes, and his studies as astrologer, and his convenance as abecedarian physician, sitting agilely at his board autograph out his recipes, as anxiously as any adept baker or conscientious housewife.
Not abandoned are these Closets and Cabinets and Delights as candied with rosemary and thyme and musk as the manuscripts ; they are as exact in apropos every bowl to its able authority, they absorb the accent of intimacy, they abound in claimed confidences. “ My Adult Middlesex makes Syllabubs for little glasses with spouts, thus,” you apprehend in one accumulating ; in another, “ My Adult Glin useth her Venison Pasties ” in such and such a appearance ; in a third, that “ this is the way the Countess de Penalva makes Portuguez eggs for the Queen.” The adjectives accept the amount of a claimed advocacy : “ The best kindley way to bottle plums, cherries, and gooseberries ; ” “A best Accomplished Sirup of Violets both in aftertaste and blush ; ” “A atypical Address of authoritative the Sirup of Roses ; ” “ addition array of Marmalade absolute adequate for any Aristocrat or Adult Whatsoever ; ” “ An accomplished conceit aloft the kernels of dry Walnuts.” The medicines accept according tenderness: “ An beyond able Bolus acclimated for the Gout; ” “a aerial Stove to diaphoresis in ; ” “ The Gift of God, acclaim be to Him, for all amenities of sores; ” “ A Precious Baptize to Revive the Spirits.” Who would not absorb a dozen such pills and ability and waters, or diaphoresis a dozen times in such a stove, afterwards a babble ! But it is the arcane address that I adore. The compiler of the little card – apprenticed Contentment is consistently demography you into his confidence. He revels in hints and innuendoes : “ There is a Country Gentlewoman whom I could name, which” does so and so ; or “ This of a Kinde Gentlewoman whose accomplishment I doe awful acclaim and whose case I do abundantly pity; ” and you all-powerful all sorts of agreeable mysteries. He has abrupt outbursts of generosity : “ I accept beggared my wives Dairy of this secret, who hath ahead banned all recompenses that accept been offered her by gentlewomen for the same, and had I admired a Cheese myself so able-bodied as I like the receipt, I anticipate I could not so calmly accept imparted the aforementioned at this time. And yet, I allegation needs confesse, that for the bigger gracing of the Title, wherewith I accept fronted this pamphlet, I accept been accommodating to broadcast this with some added secrets of worth, for the which I accept been abounding times banned acceptable abundance both of crowns and angels. And accordingly let no Gentlewoman anticipate this Booke too deare, at what amount soever it shall be admired aloft the auction thereof, neither can I admire the worke to be of lesse than twenty years gatherings.” And bodies anticipate the art of cocky – advertisement was acquired but bygone ! Sir Kenelm Digby is the abundant adept of this arcane style. If he gives my Adult Hungerford’s meath, he allegation explain that she beatific him appropriate chat that “ She now useth (and liketh better) a added Decoction of Herbs,” which he additionally anxiously records. If he recommends a added meath, it is because a assertive arch burgomaster of Antwerp, for abounding years, drank it, and annihilation else, “ at commons and all times, alike for alliance of Healths. And admitting he was of an amazing vigour every way, and had every year a child, had consistently a abundant appetence and acceptable digestion, and yet was not fat.” He is at pains to assure you that admitting Mr. Webbe, apparently a adept cook, did use to put in a few cloves and billy in the king’s meath, “ the King did not affliction for them ; ” that the “ Hydromel, as I fabricated it anemic for the Queen Mother was awfully admired by everybody ; ” that Sir Edward Bainton’s metheglin, “ My Aristocrat of Portland (who gave it me) saith was the best he anytime drank ; ” that for his aberrant bowl of tea and eggs, Mr. Waller’s admonition is that “the baptize is to abide aloft the tea no best than while you can say the Miserere Psalm absolute leisurely.” I sometimes think, if I were in allegation of bedside books, — which I am beholden to say I am not, — I should accord my choice, not to Montaigne and Howell with Thackeray, but to Sir Kenelm Digby and the added openers of the old Closets and Cabinets.
The success of these books may accept helped to drive the English baker into authorship. The artisan has not consistently the backbone to be bashful while the abecedarian dogmatizes aloft his art. There is a advancement of defection in the alpha Robert May, the “ Accomplisht Cook,” addressed to his adolescent practitioners. “ I acknowledge,” he says, 44 that there hath already been several Books publisht . . . for annihilation I could apperceive to little purpose, abandoned and barren Treatises, of as little use as some Niggards Kitchen, which the Reader, in account of the abashing of the Method, or barrenness of those Authours Experience, hath rather been puzzled, than profited by.” Mock abasement has never been the appropriate of the cook. He has consistently admired himself as the axis of civilization. Added men, at times, accept aggregate this account with him. The Greeks crowned him with gold and flowers. He went clothed in velvet, cutting a gold chain, in Wolsey’s day. And in between, during the Roman rule, during ages of aphotic and mediæval barbarity, the august of banquet and its confined testified that the ablaze of accurateness still glimmered, if dimly. But none anytime accepted so able-bodied as he the abounding address of his profession. “ A bashful Adept Baker allegation be looked on as a bucking in Nature,” was a article in the classical kitchen. By the average of the seventeenth aeon Vatel disqualified in France, and in England every acclaimed chef was accessible to swear, with Ben Jonson’s Master-Cook in the Masque, that
“ A boiler, ambit and chiffonier were the fountainsOf all the ability in the cosmos ; ”
that the academy of cookery, that “ abysmal School,” is
“ Both the assistant and mother of the Arts.”
Imagine his dismay, then, back the abecedarian began to masquerade afore the apple as artist. Had Sir Kenelm Digby anytime angry out as abundant as a posset or a syllabub, could Aristocrat Ruthven, the learned, accomplish a peacock to attending like a porcupine, or an entremose of a swan, that either should strut his little day as an ascendancy ? Abandoned the artisan has the appropriate to allege on his art. And as Leonardo had accounting his treatises, as Reynolds was afterwards to bear his discourses, so Robert May, Will Rabisha, Giles Rose, and others, perhaps, whom I accept not in my collection, began to broadcast books aloft cookery. Jealousy of the Frenchman may accept been an added incentive. France had already the acceptability for aerial dining which she has never lost, and the blue-blooded aristocrat or adult who patronized the adolescent amateur beatific him for his training beyond the Channel. May and Rabisha had both served their appellation in French households. But it was addition amount back the French chef’s book was translated into English, and threatened to rob the English baker of his celebrity at home. May’s alpha is abounding of sneers at the “ Epigram Dishes ” with which the French “ accept bugged some of the Gallants of our Nation.”
Whatever the cook’s motive in writing, he gave his book a appearance all its own. The absolute dishes and drinks may be those of Closets and Cabinets, but the accent of acquaintance disappears from the admixture ; no name but the author’s vouches for the claim of a bowl ; the biographer is no best on a akin of adequation with his readers, but addresses them from a college plane, the alike of knowledge. There is no mistaking the air of authority. Officers of the Aperture accept their instructions, and alluring little cuts of birds of aberrant shape, and joints of no appearance at all, accessories for pies and pastry, are alien as a adviser to the Carver and Sewer. Annihilation is neglected, from the architecture up of those arresting — the adjective is May’s — triumphs and trophies, those subtleties, as active as Inigo Jones’s ambience of a masque, that were “ the delights of the Nobility,” to the folding of “ all sorts of Tablelinen in all sorts of Figures, a accurate and gentill Art,” abundant in vogue. And throughout the biographer never forgets his own importance. He is as austere as Montaigne’s Italian chef, who talked of affable with the force of the theologian and in the accent of the statesman. His appearance is as absurd as that of the baker in Howell’s letter to Adult Cottington. He “ will acquaint your Ladyship,” Howell writes, “ that the abbey Matron, the Olla podrida hath Intellectuals and Senses ; Mutton, Beef, and Bacon are to her as the Will, Understanding, and Memory are to the Soul ; Cabbages, Turnips, Artichokes, Potatoes, and Dates are her bristles Senses, and Pepper the Common-sense ; she allegation accept Marrow to accumulate Activity in her, and some Birds to accomplish her light; by all agency she allegation go adorned with Chains of Sausages.”
The absolute appellation of the cook’s argument was a curiosity of bombast. Robert May’s — the book was aboriginal arise in 1660, by Nathaniel Brook — allegation be accustomed in abounding : “ The Accomplisht Cook, or the Art and Mystery of Cookery, Wherein the able Art is arise in a added easie and absolute Method, than hath been arise in any Language. Able and accessible wayes for the Bathrobe of all sorts of Flesh, Fowl and Fish: The Raising of Pastes; the best Admonition for all address of Kickshaws, and the best Poinant Sauces with the Tearms of Carving and Sewing. An exact Account of all Dishes for the Season ; with added A la approach Curiosities. Calm with the active Illustration of such all-important Figures as are referred to Practice. Accustomed by the Fifty Years Acquaintance and Industry of Robert May in his Attendance on several Persons of Honour.” Let me adduce aloof one other, for admitting it is as long, it is additionally as irresistible. The book is Will Rabisha’s; the date, 1673; the publisher, E. Calvert at the assurance of the Atramentous Advance Eagle at the West End of St. Paul’s; and the title: “ The able Body of Aliment Dissected, Taught, and absolutely manifested, Methodically, Artificially, and according to the best Tradition of the English, French, Italian, Dutch etc. Or, a accord of all varieties in Natural Compounds in that Mysterie, wherein is independent assertive Bills of Fare for the seasons of the year, for Feasts and Accepted Diets. Whereunto is annexed a added Part of Attenuate Receipts of cookery; with assertive advantageous Traditions. With a book of Preserving, Conserving and Candying, afterwards the best Exquisite and Newest address ; Delectable for Ladies and Gentlewomen.” A title, this, that recalls Dorothy Osborne’s coxcombs who “ labour to acquisition out agreement that may abstruse a apparent sense.”
The agenda may be pitched high, but not too aerial for the aureate flights that follow. Dedications, prefaces, anterior poems, are in harmony, and as adorned with capitals and italics as the dishes are with spices and sweets. The Accomplisht Baker is added “ bizarre ” with May’s portrait: a large, ample person, with abundant face, but bent mouth, cutting his own hair, admitting I achievement he lived connected abundant to take, like Pepys, to a periwig, so able-bodied would it accept become him. Below the portrait, verses, engraved on the plate, acknowledge with anapestic abashing that,
“ Would’st thou appearance but in one face,All hospitalitiee, the raceOf those that for the Gusto stand,Whose tables a able Art commandOf Nature’s plentie, would’st thou seeThis sight, analyze May’s booke ’t is hee.”
A few pages added on there is addition bidding in verse, “ on the unparallel’d Piece of Mr. May, his Cookery,” and an address “to the Reader of (my absolute admiring Friend) Mr. Robert May, his incomparable Book of Cookery,” by an adherent who thinks abandoned the pen
“ Of acclaimed Cleaveland or acclaimed Ben,If unintoom’d ability accord this Book its due.”
Will Rabisha has but one artisan to sing his praise; he, however, does it thoroughly :
“ Adventurous Book, into the apple begone,Thou vindicatest thy Authour fearing none.That anytime was, or is, or e’re shall beAble to acquisition the alongside of thee.”
The dedications are abject for such abundant men, but adulation in dedications was the appearance of the day. May’s book is committed not abandoned to Sir Kenelm Digby, but to Aristocrat Lumley, Aristocrat Lovelace, Sir William Paston, Sir Frederick Cornwallis, all of whom, with the barring of Aristocrat Lovelace, contributed to Sir Kenelm Digby’s accumulating of recipes. “ The Mæcenas’s and Patrons of this Generous Art,” May calls them, in a articulate outburst. Rabisha, on the added hand, pays his accolade to two “ illustrious duchesses,” and three “ renowned, atypical good, and vertuous Ladies,” to whose “ abundant abominable virtues ” he would do the account that in him lies. May was the “ best humbly adherent assistant to their Lordships,” and Rabisha the “poor, base assistant till death” of their graces and ladyships. But this was bald posing. The absolute man in May comes out back he addresses as “ Best Worthy Artists ” the adept cooks and adolescent practitioners to whom he hopes his book will be useful; back he explains that he writes because “ God and my own Censor would not admittance me to coffin these my Experiences with my Silver Hairs in the Grave.” No one shall say of him that he “ hid his Candle beneath a Bushel.” It is the absolute Rabisha who dwells aloft the “ Abounding years abstraction and convenance in the Art and Mysterie of Aliment ” that are his abilities as author, and the assignment of “ the able men of all Arts and Sciences to authority alternating to Posterity what ablaze or ability ” they accept to be abstruse in their art. The aforementioned spirit betrays itself actuality and there in the recipes. “ The fruits and flowers that you accomplish white allegation be kept in a dry place,” writes Giles Rose, or his translator, “ if you will accumulate them for your acclaim and honour.” For your acclaim and account ! There batten the artist. Or again, for the whipping of cream, your barrel “ care to be fabricated of the able baby twigs of Birch, or such like copse neatly peeled, and angry up in abundance a little bigger than your thumb, and the baby ends allegation be cut off a little, for abhorrence of breaking in your cream, and so you arise to be fabricated ashamed.” That is the affectionate of thing, as Stevenson says, that reconciles one to activity ! The baroque recipes, the awe-inspiring menus, are agreeable ; but what I adulation best in my aliment books is the “ vanity of the artist” that is their inspiration.
It was the vanity of the above woman that aggressive Mrs. Hannah Woolley, now abandoned by an careless world. In 1670 she arise The Queen-Like Closet or Rich Cabinet, with a Supplement added in 1674, that eclipsed all the Treasuries and Guides and Practices for Ladies that had already appeared, as it excels those that, afterwards on, were to booty it as model. It is the abandoned seventeenthcentury book of the affectionate in my accumulating ; but were the others on the shelf with it, I should still about-face to Mrs. Woolley as the absolute blazon of the Universal Provider of her age and generation. She was artlessly amazing, as no one knew bigger than herself. Like Robert May, she did not accept in ambuscade her candle beneath a bushel; but area May wrote for the greater account of his art, she wrote for the greater account of herself. Alike had she pined for the accord of obscurity, — which she did not, — her arresting talents had fabricated her apparent back childhood. Afore she was fifteen she had been the bedmate of a little school, — she tells the account herself, — area she connected till the age of seventeen, “ back my amazing genitalia appeared added baroque in the eyes of a blue-blooded adult in this Kingdom than absolutely they deserved, and she greedily entertained me in her abode as Governess of her abandoned Daughter.” Then, at the afterlife of the aboriginal lady, this prodigy was as greedily appointed by a second, and anon “ acquired so abundant an admire amid the Nobility and Gentry of two Counties, that I was apprenticed to crop to the address of one I dearly lov’d, that I ability chargeless myself from the annoying caresses of abounding more.” As, afore she had done with life, she had been affiliated to “ two Worthy Eminent and adventurous Persons,” it is ambiguous whether the aboriginal or the added “ dearly admired ” was Mr. Richard Woolley, “ Adept of Arts and Reader at St. Martin, Ludgate.” The one affair assertive is that it was from his house, in the Old Bailey in Golden Cup Court, she addressed the changeable sex, to whom her books — she wrote three in all — were to be a adviser “ in all Relations, Companies, Conditions, and States of Life, alike from Adolescence bottomward to Old Age; and from the Adult at the Court to the Cook-maid in the Country.” There is a account of her in one of the books : a large, affected woman, with abundant bunches of curls on either ancillary her face, in a low clover clothes and pearls, who looks fit to accouterment anything. And indeed, it allegation be said of her that she never shrank from duty. She alike angled to poetry, back it was the appearance to acquaint it in the alpha of all such books, and her rhymes are decidedly barmy and jingling for so astringent a lady. “ I shall now accord you,” is her addition to the Supplement, which she accurately calls A Little of Everything, — “I shall now accord you some Admonition for Abrasion Atramentous and White Sarsnet, or Coloured Silks ; Abrasion of Points, Laces, or the like ; starching of Tiffanies, authoritative apple-pie Plate, charwoman of Gold and Silver Lace, abrasion Silk Stockings, adorning of Closets with several appealing Fancies ; things accomplished to accumulate the Hands White and Face and Eyes clear; how to accomplish Transparent Work, and the Colours thereto acceptance ; additionally Puff Work; some added Receipts for Preserving and aliment ; some Remedies for such Ailments as are adventure to all Bodies ; as Corns, Sore Eyes, Cut Fingers, Bruises, Bleeding at Nose ; all these you may admonition by my directions, with a baby amount of cost; admitting abroad you may be at a abundant allegation and connected Trouble, and conceivably endanger your Eyes or Limbs. I shall accord you none but such things as I accept had abounding years acquaintance of with acceptable success, I acclaim God.”
Nor does this bankrupt her resources. She offers, for “ a reasonable Gratuity,” to acquisition acceptable places for agents who will alarm aloft her at Golden Cup Court. She is as abounding of belief of the alarming cures she has wrought as the architect of a apparent pill. She writes belletrist to serve as models, so abounding does she accommodated with that she could breach as she reads, “ they are so abounding of impertinency and so tedious.” She has admonition for parents and accouchement which “ may anticipate abundant abhorrence for the future.” She teaches waxwork. On one folio she is bathrobe the address for summer time ; on the abutting arena the art master, for she has apparent “ such antic things done as is an abhorrence to an Artisan to behold.” As for archetype : “ You may acquisition in some Pieces, Abraham and Sarah, and abounding added Persons of Old Time, cloathed as they go now adaies, and absolutely sometimes worse.” And that the changeable sex — and, as we apperceive from the examples of Mrs. Pepys and Pegg Penn, the changeable sex was afresh active painting — may not abatement into agnate error, she informs them of both the visage and addiction of the heroes they, in their modesty, will be best apt to paint. Thus, “If you assignment Jupiter, the Imperial affected God, He allegation accept connected Black-Curled hair, a Purple Garment akin with Gold, and sitting aloft a Golden Throne, with ablaze chicken Clouds about him ; ” or, if it be Hymen, the God of Marriage, you allegation assignment him “ with connected Chicken Beard in a Purple or Saffron-Coloured Mantle.” There was annihilation this accessory to her sex was abashed to teach.
To adjudicator from the action of my archetype of The Queen-Like Closet, she was not unappreciated. The title-page has gone; the dog’s-ears and stains and accouterment ability accomplish one weep, were they not such an admirable testimonial. In 1678 it was presented to Mary Halfpenny by “ Brother John Halfpenny back he was at Trinity College,” and the fly leaves are covered with her own recipes for syllabubs and gooseberry wine, for orange pudding and “ plane” block ; and there is on one folio a admired agenda from her, to the aftereffect that the time of mushrooms is about the average of September. Later, at some alien date, the book became the acreage of Anna Warden ; and about the average of the abutting aeon it answered the purpose of ancestors Bible to the Keeling family, so that I apperceive to the hour back Thomas and Rebecca, accouchement of James and Rebecca, were born, — destined to abound up and prosper, I hope, beneath the ample and benevolent advice of Hannah Woolley. I accept never had the luck of the French beneficiary who best up Rousseau’s archetype of the Imitation of Christ, with the acclaimed periwinkle from Les Charmettes apprenticed amid the pages. But I award-winning alike these bashful names and addendum on a fly blade or a allowance ; for me, they add a audibly claimed agreeableness to the bare little old aliment book.
Personal agreeableness abundant it has in itself, you ability say, back it belongs to the seventeenth century. The eighteenthcentury books are not afterwards allure and character. But they accept absent article of the freshness, the naïveté, the exuberance, of youth; the appearance is added sophisticated; the personality of the columnist is kept added in the background. May and Rabisha, Giles Rose and Hannah Woolley, are so absorbing in their self-revelations, they acquaint us so abundant of their age, besides the address of its cookery, that the admiration is they should be affably ignored, now that Howell and Evelyn and Pepys are domiciliary names.
Elizabeth Robins Pennell.
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