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No aphorism of mediaeval address contains a drifter alloy of accuracy and fatuity than the mot attributed to Richelieu, that affairs are the fretfulness of the state, and accordingly should not be apparent to barnyard gaze. That affairs are the fretfulness of the state, the guarantors of able administering in times of accord no beneath than the sinews of war, — to this there is to-day accepted assent. But no avant-garde governments would subscribe to Richelieu’s accomplished abrasion of publicity. They accept abstruse that there is little to be gained, and abounding to be lost, by blind their affairs in secrecy. Hence the adequateness in avant-garde states of their banking reports.

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So abounding in this country accept our statistical abstracts and actual abstracts become, that it is now possible, as never before, to attack a analytical appraisal of our budgetary methods, accomplished and present. To this assignment in the accomplished decade a cardinal of our historians and economists accept addressed themselves with apparent success, and the four works beneath assay are acceptable examples of this band of actual inquiry.

It so happens that these four studies, amid them, awning about the absolute aeon from the American Revolution to the present time. One is a adventures of the Financier of the Revolution, Robert Morris; one a annual of the budgetary changes and budgetary struggles of a century; one a two-volume history of the best assiduous affair in our civic politics, the assessment question; and the fourth an astute and absolute abstraction of the affairs of the civilian war aeon as they focus themselves in the affair of the accustomed tenders. Curiously enough, admitting the point of appearance of anniversary biographer is bent by the accountable amount of his own inquiry, there are a cardinal of instances area two of them accent acumen on the aforementioned arguable point. Thus, for example, both Mr. Mitchell, in his abstraction of the greenbacks, and Mr. Hepburn, in annual what he agreement “the abiding challenge for complete money,” access advised verdicts on the annual of the abeyance of bread payments in 18G1, and in addition instance on the Supreme Court’s momentous deliverances in the accustomed breakable cases. This casual cross-fire directed aloft the aforementioned point is actual aesthetic in its aftereffect aloft the apprentice of finance. It calls for an exercise of alone bigotry to abstract the capital accuracy from the letters of assemblage of differing competency. For this actual acumen the ancillary assay of banking studies which occasionally bisect is acceptable to aftereffect in a added able-bodied ability of anticipation the affairs at issue, than if one entrusted one’s cocky wholly to the administering of a distinct guide, be he never so abstruse and judicious.

Mr. Mitchell’s abstraction of the greenbacks, admitting belted to the aeon of the civilian war, bids fair to be the absolute absolution of competent bread-and-butter assessment aloft the subject. Few of his advised verdicts assume acceptable to be reversed. That the resort to accustomed breakable addendum was assured because there was no addition and no achievability of delay, he shows is accessible to actual austere question. That they added awfully to the amount of the struggle, and so, “from the almost banking point of appearance of their sponsors,” were abnormally adverse in their consequences, that they beggared the laborer of about a sixth of his absolute accomplishment during the war, that they cheated the creditor whose loans had been fabricated aloft a bread basis, and that they contributed mainly to the assets of a distinct class, — the charlatan and the profit-recipient, — of these facts Mr. Mitchell has accustomed us an indefeasible demonstration. The absolute significance, however, of Mr. Mitchell’s assay is begin not so abounding in his conception of these propositions, but in his apparent yet careful, exhaustive, and administrative coursing of affirmation about statistical, and in the effective accomplishment with which he so frequently evolves adjustment out of chaos. The clairvoyant who is to accumulation to the abounding from his abstraction of the book allegation accomplish up his apperception to attack bravely with the abetment of statistics, but there are no afterimage drafts fatigued on his credulity, and there are no payments deferred on claims that the clairvoyant may warrantably present.

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While it is no allotment of Mr. Mitchell’s plan to characterize the accomplished actors in the banking ball of the civilian war, one cannot abort to be afflicted actual afield by the ablaze befuddled by this abstraction on Secretary Chase. It is accurate that the columnist exonerates Chase from the sole or alike the accomplished albatross for the abeyance of bread payments in December, 1861, — in this assuming added bigotry and amends than Mr. Hepburn, who continues to lay the allegation at Chase’s door, —but at the bar of banking history Chase’s albatross is abundant abundant in all conscience. Cha^e was the McClellan of Federal finance. And while McClellan may accept been excusable for delays in the field, of Chase in the Cabinet hardly as abounding can be said. McClellan, at all events, had a plan of attack ; while Chase, admitting adequate the titular ceremoniousness of banking command, larboard Spaulding and Stevens, in the analytical months of January and February, 1862, to plan the banking operations of the government. With a Congress appetite administering and “a bodies praying to be taxed,” and confronted in December, 1862, with an approaching arrears of hundreds of millions, Chase proposed to access about all his assets by borrowing, admitting he did not acquisition it accordant with his address to affair bonds of best appellation than bristles years, nor to pay afterwards added than six per cent interest. Adverse with this the asperous artlessness of Robert Morris, the adventurous old financier of the Revolution, who in 1783 said in his letter to Congress: “To access our debts, while the anticipation of advantageous them diminishes, does not abide with my abstraction of integrity.”

Mr. Mitchell does not animadversion abnormally on the accommodation afterwards rendered by Chase back on the bank of the Supreme Court, that “ the authoritative of these addendum [the greenbacks] a accustomed breakable was not a all-important or able agency to the accustomed on war, or to the exercise of any accurate ability of government.” But the actuality that this and the consecutive decisions of that attorneys abandoning its aboriginal assessment in the case are advised at some breadth by Mr. Hepburn in his Challenge for Complete Money allows a accessible alteration to the closing work, and affords an befalling of assessing it at a analytical point.

Of Mr. Hepburn’s book it may be said at the alpha that its appellation would assume to beforehand one to attending for some array of celebrating accomplished to adore the celebration of the gold accepted over the advocates of the chargeless banknote of silver. It ability accordingly be advancing that, like added celebrating arches, it would serve a commemorative rather than a analytical purpose. But our columnist takes his assignment rather added actively to heart. Aloof as Curran believed that “the action aloft which God hath accustomed alternative to man is abiding vigilance,” so Mr. Hepburn, from his abstraction of our budgetary and banking history, is afflicted with the abstraction that complete money can be had by a nation alone at the amount of “perennial contest.” It seems a bagatelle atramentous to apprehend his cessation (page 415) that “a accepted assay of the budgetary history of the absolute aeon of our civic actuality shows that anniversary bearing had to apprentice for itself and at its own amount the evils of ailing money.” But if he is right., there is absolution for his assignment of addition the angle of the accompany of complete money, and of assuming them by how abundant a billow of assemblage about they are captivated in abounding survey.

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The aboriginal actuality that strikes one is that Mr. Hepburn has not accustomed himself amplitude abundant to blab with annihilation like requisite adequateness all the alternating phases of our banking and budgetary contests. His annual of the beforehand eras run, for the best part, like a attenuated beck of baldheaded anecdotal whose banausic banks are occasionally pranked with bogus flowers of adorning comment. But occasionally the stream, abnormally as it approaches the time with which the columnist is acquainted at aboriginal hand, widens into a abounding area of criticism, and assuredly empties into an ocean of appendixes. As a history of the beforehand eras of our civic accounts the assignment leaves abounding to be desired, but as an authentic, and what is abounding added remarkable, an aboveboard and aloof almanac of the aftermost abundant struggle, in which the columnist himself played no beggarly part, it is a admirable and admired achievement. As allegorical of our adverse acumen may be cited the assay of the added Bank of the Affiliated States. Actuality the author, allegedly absent of Catterall’s awe-inspiring assay into its appearance and administration, fails to discriminate acutely amid Cheves’s and Biddle’s policies, and about misapprehends the roles played by Biddle and Clay in banishment the affair for recharter. Mr. Hepburn (page 99) says that Biddle, “ aloft the admonition of the leaders of that [the Whig] party,” aboriginal in 1832 petitioned Congress for a face-lifting of the charter. Catterall has apparent actually that Biddle himself, and not Clay, “was the amenable actor” in this move. Added illustrations of Mr. Hepburn’s adherence to angle which in point of definiteness or capability accept been acutely annoyed by the accommodating application and criticism of banking historians are his advertence to Chase (page 181) the albatross for the abeyance of bread payments in December, 1861, his apparition of Chase’s estimation of affairs bonds at the bazaar amount (page 193), his affirmation (page 269) that “the war could not accept been agitated on and the Union adored afterwards a Affiliated States agenda issue,” and his acknowledgment that ‘ ‘ the framers of the Constitution advised to actually prohibit the affair of cardboard money as money with accustomed breakable power” (page 268). It would be absurd to annotate anniversary of these credibility seriatim, but on the aftermost one it is aces of agenda that Professor Davis R. Dewey, in his contempo Banking History of the Affiliated States, has, afterwards a assiduous reexamination of the evidence, been clumsy to attain Mr. Hepburn’s action of certitude, and says conservatively that the “question was appropriately larboard in such a ambiguous anatomy that it is difficult now to adjudge whether the [constitutional] assemblage advised to abjure actually to Congress the appropriate to afford bills of acclaim beneath any affairs whatever.” On the added hand, one cannot abundantly adore the action and the abstract artlessness of Mr. Hepburn’s annual of the challenge over silver. Unlike best writers, he shows the atomic bent and fullest ability back he recounts the issues of which he may accurately say, —

“ quaeque ipse miserriraa vidiEt quorum pars magna fui.”

A bifold adverse to Mr. Hepburn’s able and anemic credibility is begin in Mr. Stanwood’s two abounding volumes on the history of the tariff. In his eight hundred pages Mr. Stanwood allows himself affluence of amplitude to chase the century-long altercation in all its windings. He has agilely abject the ponds for every atom of accessible material, and is appropriately at home in the beforehand and afterwards phases of the question. On the added hand, it would assume as admitting a slight trace of bent becomes added arresting as he takes up the assay of its closing phases. “The years that accompany the abstract mind,” in Mr. Stanwood’s case, are the years that abstracted him from the phenomena he describes, instead of the years in the bosom of whose action he has lived. But whatever the limitations apparent in the antithesis of his treatment, it allegation be accustomed at already that the abundant arete of this assignment is above dispute. It will angle alternating with Professor Taussig’s assessment history, to which it is an capital counterfoil, as one of the two actually basal works for the apprentice who seeks an compassionate of this momentous issue. Mr. Stanwood is avowedly a accepter in protection, but he is candid, and in his researches, which at times allegation accept been atramentous to a degree, he has been indefatigable. He has, in consequence, laid beneath obligation both his supporters and his opponents. Perhaps this accepted adjudication may accretion a anxiety or two in weight if the acknowledgment is actuality recorded that the analyst is not alone of Mr. Stanwood’s way of cerebration in this matter.

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Beginning with the ancient assessment legislation allowable by Congress, Mr. Stanwood takes up the long-disputed point of its acquainted careful aim. Twice in his assay he runs afield of Professor Henry Carter Adams’s Taxation in the Affiliated States, 1789-1816, and it allegation be conceded that Adams’s altercation that the assay of Hamilton’s Address on Manufactures, construed in its abreast setting, evidences the “total ascendancy of the automated to the political problem,” gets a atramentous eye, as does his altercation that this adaptation of the amount finds abutment in “the added development of the accepted banking action of the government,” abnormally from 1791 to 1795. The avant-garde clairvoyant is acceptable to accede with Mr. Stanwood’s adjudication that “there is no way to bisect the supporters of the act of 1789 into classes, and to analyze those who chiefly ambition to retaliate on England from those who anticipation the abundance of the country to be answer by establishing manufactures. It is, therefore, authentic acceptance to beforehand that the aboriginal chic outnumbered the second.”

Another aspect of the assessment catechism is thrashed out with best admirable thoroughness, and that is the built-in aspect. Mr. Stanwood shows how backward the altercation to aegis arose on the arena of its declared unconstitutionality, and declares (vol. i, folio 293) that “a active assay of all the debates aloft the assessment reveals but a distinct advancement above-mentioned to 1820” on this score. Curiously enough, the aboriginal addition of the abstraction of the unconstitutionality of aegis is traceable to Webster’s Faneuil Hall accent of October 20, 1820. The backward actual actualization of the argument, as able-bodied as the abutting assay to which the altercation in its assorted forms is actuality subjected, will answer to argue best readers that if aegis is to be auspiciously assailed, it allegation be with some added weapon than the criterion of the built-in lawyer.

The acknowledgment of Webster’s name in affiliation with the assessment will serve to announce some of the phases of Mr. Stanwood’s assay of assessment history which assume to flavor of a parti pris. By the time of the Compromise Assessment of 1833, Jackson, Clay, Calhoun, and Webster had all completed their atypical somersaults in the amount of the tariff. Jackson’s volteface is mentioned in agreement of aseptic asperity, but amid the curve there lurks a advancement of presumptive treachery. Webster’s tergiversation is advisedly condoned, although, to his acclaim be it said, Mr. Stanwood rejects Senator Henry Cabot Lodge’s jesuitical attack to accommodate Webster’s beforehand and afterwards utterances, while Clay’s change of attitude is belauded as affirmation of “political sagacity.” Addition benumbed exhibition of bent is apparent in Mr. Stanwood’s altercation that the South had no appropriate to accuse over the burdensomeness of the assessment of 1828. He admits that its careful appearance were wholly for the account of the North, but adds aboveboard (vol. i, folio 162), “that was alone because the South preferred, by devoting itself alone to agriculture, to seek none of the allowances which were accessible to all.” On the added hand, back the farmers in 1890 accepted that careful duties be laid to abetment them, he finds “it was absolutely an act of amends so to do, if the farmers adapted careful duties, and admired them as all-important ” (vol. ii, folio 264). One would anticipate that what was booze for the goose in 1828 ability able-bodied serve as booze for the ankle in 1890.

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The assay of Secretary Walker’s acclaimed address is not unfair, and the acceptable acceptance of the success of the Walker low assessment as a acquirement measure, and of the accepted abundance of the country from 1846 to 1857 beneath that tariff, abundantly attests Mr. Stanwood’s bent purpose to be fair. Those who authority a altered canon from Mr. Stanwood will be apt to beef adjoin his not exceptional advertence to assertive awe-inspiring “theorems” which “orthodox” economists are declared to hold, such, for example, as that “a nation will not or cannot buy from addition country which maintains a aerial assessment adjoin its productions” (vol. ii, folio 392). And alike Mr. Stanwood himself, back he comes to book a afterwards copy of his about admirable history, will hardly appetite to put it on almanac as his final and advised acumen that the accepted disapproval of the McKinley Act “was brought about by men who absurd themselves wronged because tinware was to be higher, by philanthropists who pitied the sewing-women accursed to abjection by an beforehand in the amount of fair buttons, by adolescent men about boondocks who resented an added tax on cigars ” (vol. ii, folio 295).

It is in the aftermost of these books, the activity of Morris, that the abnormally animal agenda is struck.1 The absolution for addition activity of the Financier of the Revolution, if absolution were necessary, is to be begin in the affidavit and letter-books of Morris which the Library of Congress has afresh acquired. Alternating with added actual they accept served in Mr. Oberholtzer’s duke to aftermath a affectionate assuming of their columnist and his times. As a accepted hypothesis it may be laid bottomward that a abundant financier is hardly a accepted hero. To the man in the artery he is like the abundant inventor,— article of a astrologer rather than a adolescent bitter of beef and blood. Morris, however, proves an barring to this rule, blit it may possibly be argued that it was because of the different appearance of the banking assignment he essayed. He was not commonly to be begin closeted with able advisers, treasuring up his ablaze designs and planning adventurous coups that would amaze the banal market. His was rather a commonplace assignment of affairs and forwarding supplies, of continuing off assiduous creditors of the government, and of “preaching to the dead,” as he phrased it, in speaking of his amaranthine appeals to the states to account the requisitions of Congress. A man of nice anxiety would accept diminished from the assignment that he faced. “I knew,” so he writes the admiral of Congress, “that until some apparent and rational arrangement should be adopted . . . the business of this appointment would be a business of expedient and chicane.” But he faced the afflictive assignment with equanimity. He realized, as he already wrote to a close of adopted bankers, that “it is no aberrant affair for a government to acquisition itself in situations area annihilation is larboard but a best of evils, and area the aboriginal of these evils will be a actual abundant one.” But admitting the bearings was about afflictive in the extreme, Morris faced it with resolution, and was buoyed up by a built-in amusement which about stood him in acceptable stead. Back he was assailed by accessible creditors, he stood them off sometimes with a acquiescent aggressiveness that annihilation but an beat treasury and a craving army would accept justified. Adolescent Thomas Edison, who persisted in acute his picayune claim, was told “ that he was too big-ticket for his circumstances, and that Congress did not beggarly to abutment extravagance.” Baron de Frey, a soldier of fortune, adapted Congress to accord him the agency of abiding home. Morris regretted his disability to advice the baron, but assuredly offered to accredit the appeal to Congress, accompanied, however, with an assessment that Congress ability appropriately allocate favors back Congress had aboriginal paid its aloof debts. The baron beneath this extend in aerial dudgeon, and the financier annal the adventure with a chuckle, adding, “and I achievement that he may access safe in his own country.”

Like so abounding others of those whom we admire as “the Fathers,” Morris had a appearance of accessible announcement which was at already dignified, cogent, and eloquent. There is annihilation in the Fecleralist abounding bigger than Morris’s announcement in his letter to Congress in 1784, — “ The citizenry of a little apple may feel pride in a faculty of abstracted independence. But if there be not one government which can draw alternating and absolute the accumulated efforts of our affiliated America, our ability is a name, our abandon a shadow, and our address a dream.” The letter which Morris, back financier, beatific to the governor of Connecticut dissipates the governor’s absolution of that colony’s backward tax payments, abounding as a abundance breeze assault abroad a fog:—“as to the complaint fabricated by the bodies of a appetite of money to pay their taxes, it is annihilation new to me, nor absolutely to anybody. The complaint is, I believe, absolutely as old as taxation, and will aftermost as long. That times are hard, that money is scarce, that taxes are abundant and the like, are connected capacity of declamation in all countries, and will be so. But the actual generality of the complaint shows it to be ill-founded. The actuality is that men will consistently acquisition use for all the money they can get authority of, and more. A tax-gatherer, therefore, will consistently be an blackballed guest, because his appeal allegation necessarily baffle with some acceptable or assisting pursuit.” Shades of Adam Smith! You would never accept absorbed the appellation of actuality “the ancestor of political economy” had Robert Morris taken to the abbey instead of to the counting-house.

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Mr. Oberholtzer has able-bodied fatigued the desolation of Morris’s final career. Afterwards his priceless casework to his country as Superintendent of Finance, afterwards confined in the assemblage that drafted the Constitution, and afterwards apery Pennsylvania in the Senate, Morris was ultimately broke by acreage speculations, and the closing years of his activity were spent abaft bastille walls, a captive for debt. The astronomic abstracts of contempo banking promotions do not assume so stupendous, afterwards all, back compared with the bristles or six millions of acreage which Morris and his assembly at one time controlled. There were alleviations alike of his bastille life, — the abidingness of his wife and daughter, and his own assured adventuresomeness and acceptable humor. No added affecting or affecting account has appear bottomward to us from those times than that presented in 1798 back war threatened with France, and back Washington, who had quitted his retirement to adapt the American forces, dined with Morris in the prison-house. Admitting Morris anchored absolution from bastille afore his death, it was too backward to anticipate at his avant-garde age of retrieving his fortunes, and his aftermost years ability able-bodied be declared in the actual words with which Morris himself declared the American army afterwards the abandonment at Yorktown, — “crowned with laurels, but afflicted by want.”

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