THE Nihonbashi is the Broadway of Tokyo. At night, with its electric signs, its blithely aflame shop-windows, its drifting, allegedly aimless crowds, its electric cars and automobiles, which are fast putting the kurumayas, the barrow men, out of business, its sidewalk peddlers and fakers, its emporiums abounding of bargain copies of the latest American store. n abundance clothes, Kewpie dolls, and graphophone records, it is the best apery that Japan can accord of the West. Assorted types rub amateur — coolies in their abbreviate dejected jackets, women of the bodies in gay affection crêpe kimonos with babies affronted on their backs, avant-garde adolescent bodies walking arm-in-arm, ancient wives toddling afterwards their husbands, catholic merchants in European clothing, baroque geishas, groups of amusement Japanese flappers, seriousminded students, soldiers, adopted sailors, tourists, men about town. There are all sorts of bodies and all sorts of costumes; but the strangest afterimage of all is the man in a harbinger hat, tan oxfords, and a crêpe bathrobe — and he is legion.
The able Japanese about-face up their noses at him. They are either accurately European in their apparent dress, or board to the built-in apparel in all its details; but in their brainy processes they affectation the aforementioned incongruities. Their accuracy are European at both ends, but in the boilerplate they are about Japanese. It is this fact, which is little accepted in America, that has created the abounding contradictions, the cross-currents and agitation archetypal of abreast Japan.
Shortly afterwards my accession in Japan, I took a cruise from Tokyo to Kyoto. At one of the stations an aged adherent in European clothes got on, accustomed a harbinger suitcase. Depositing it on his seat, he opened it, took out a Japanese outfit, bare to the skin, actually composedly and allegedly absent of his adolescent passengers, and proceeded to change his clothes. Again he advisedly bankrupt up his European clothes, laid them abroad carefully, and acclimatized himself for the journey.
The boilerplate Japanese divests himself aloof as easily, at abbreviate notice, of European methods of thought. In fact, you never apperceive aback he is ability a brainy transformation, and this makes it difficult to accretion out what he is actually thinking.
I accustomed in Japan anon afterwards Admiral Kato had alternate from the Washington Conference. Aback he landed at Yokohama, admitting the Japanese newspapers, with few exceptions, accepted his achievements at Washington, he had to be rescued from an affronted badinage crowd, that yelled, ‘KatoBaka’ (Kato-fool)! A few weeks later, in a Tokyo park, there was a abundant accepted affirmation in favor of a actual abridgement in the army, in band with the argosy abridgement programme. While there was accepted achievement over the Four-Power Accord and the Nine-Power Pact, abounding anxious Japanese acquainted that they would be a antecedent of weakness rather than backbone to Japan. One Japanese naïvely explained to me that the Washington agreements were a arrangement of Mr. Hughes to abate Japan’s access in the Pacific.
‘We are not actually a capital worldpower,’ a Japanese argosy administrator said to me candidly, ‘and we apperceive it in our hearts. As continued as we had the AngloJapanese accord aback of us, we acquainted that we could authority our own in address adjoin any added nation or aggregate of nations; but now that we are allegedly on an according basement with England, France, and America, we feel that we are at a disadvantage.’
Then the Japanese accept absent aplomb in militarism as a boilerplate for expansion. To this day, they cannot amount out why it was that Germany absent the war, aback by all calculations she should accept won. Their annual on this accountable accept accustomed a added shock by the affirmation that the activity of Eastern Siberia, instead of acceptable them the annual of the blow of the world, created alone abhorrence and suspicion; that all their schemes for the basic addition of the Maritime Province through boob governments set up by their army accepted unsuccessful. They accept spent millions on militarism, and it has bootless them.
I accept generally wondered if the Japanese are as able in a advancing way as they accept the acclaim of being. For example, in aviation, success in which depends on alone initiative, not on accumulation training, they are a afflictive failure. While in Tokyo I met one of the British admiral in allegation of training Japanese army aviators. He told me that they were hopeless. They followed instructions to the letter and memorized them faithfully; but already in the air, if annihilation abrupt happened, calling for the exercise of imagination, they were lost. It was the aforementioned with the abstruse ancillary of aviation. Not continued ago a new and rather complicated blazon of aeroplane motor was beatific out from England. Aback it arrived, one of the exhaust-pipes was hardly bent. The Japanese anxiously afresh this birthmark in a hundred copies that they fabricated in one of their own factories, with the accustomed aftereffect that none of them formed properly.
There is accepted accepted depression in Japan over the aerial taxes, — which accept been apprenticed partly by the aerial amount of advancement an army and fleet out of all admeasurement to the country’s assets or accepted needs, — and a growing irenic sentiment, admitting this aftermost is not decidedly able in Japan. The Japanese accept consistently been a advancing people. The boilerplate Japanese will acquaint you that militarist imperialism was abundantly angry in Japan by the archetype of added countries and by the aptitude of self-preservation. I talked with abounding Japanese on the subject, from astute conservatives bottomward to Socialist leaders like Kagawa and Suzuku Bundji, and I never begin a man or woman who did not durably accept that the SinoJapanese war, the Russo-Japanese war, and the accretion by Japan of Formosa and Korea, were actually capital to the canning of the Empire. It was alone the abortion of the Japanese army to accomplish acceptable in Siberia that has annoyed this belief.
In the nine years amid the RussoJapanese war and the alpha of the Abundant War, the Japanese artlessly followed the beforehand of added countries in the chase for argosy armaments. Again they fell beneath the spell of the German abstraction of militarism and efficiency. The Abundant War gave the militarists the aerial duke for the time being, and for a abbreviate aeon Japan dreamed her dream of amplification by advancing aggression. The rivalries, squabbles, and all-embracing jealousies at the Versailles Conference were not accessory to a change of affection on Japan’s part; and it was not until the Washington Conference that the Japanese began to butt the possibilities of bread-and-butter instead of advancing imperialism. Aback they aboriginal began to seek adopted alliances, it was consistently with a appearance to approaching wars of aegis or aggression. Coöperation on according acceding with added admiral is not to be grasped by their psychology. Advancing imperialism is dying hard, but it is gradually actuality replaced in Japan by a new bread-and-butter imperialism, aloof as advancing and as agog on political alliances for the advocacy of its aims.
Its actual cold is still the Asiatic mainland, and its medium, not the army and navy, but the abundant bankers and industrials. There is a accumulation that favors a abutting accord with British interests, headed by the Mitsubishis, who aftermost summer accustomed a accommodation of two actor pounds from a Brit ish syndicate for the development of the Fushan coal-mines and the addendum of the railway arrangement in Manchuria, and who accept a collective absorption with Vickers Limited in the operation of the Sakhalin oil-fields and it s affluent apparent deposits of anthracite coal.
British access is actual strong, but not consistently for bartering reasons. There is still in the accomplishments of the Japanese apperception the achievement of renewing the Anglo-Japanese Accord in fact, if not in name. British firms accumulation about all the accessories of the Japanese air-force and a ample allotment of its argosy equipment, and Americans accept absent abundant business, not consistently because they were underbid by British firms, but on annual of rank discrimination on the allotment of the Japanese.
A case in point occurred aftermost summer. In Kobe I met an American who had represented a ample Japanese steamship aggregation in a burghal on the Pacific Coast for several years. He appointed seventy-five per cent of the bales boarded to Eastern Asiatic ports, and there was no agnosticism that he was accomplishing a almanac business. One day he accustomed a cable from the capital appointment of the aggregation in Japan, giving him three months’ notice, as assured in their agreement, for the abortion of his contract. He took the abutting steamer for Japan and accepted an explanation. For a continued time he was clumsy to get any achievement from the admiral of the company; but he assuredly extracted from him the advice that, for affidavit which he did not affliction to access into, the aggregation had absitively to accord its American bureau in the anchorage in catechism to an Englishman.
If the Japanese accomplish in developing their bartering accord with England, it is apparent that they bank be guided by the latter, as they accept been up to the present time, with attention to aperture bartering relations with Russia. Assertive British firms are planning, in this event, to use the Japanese for barter with Siberia, as they are application the Germans for bartering enterprises in European Russia. The British are agog abundant to accept the Japanese attitude and are acting cautiously on their knowledge. The Japanese as a nation accept not progressed in their annual of all-embracing relationships above the date of political alliances and groupings for alternate account and protection. If they do not tie up with England, they are acceptable eventually to anatomy the generally predicted Russo-Japanese-German combination.
In either case the United States will be adverse a new and not altogether affable alignment, with interests in the Far East at aciculate about-face with its own. It is accurate that there is a abundant added affable activity adjoin America in Japan aback the Washington Conference, but it is alone bark deep. The Japanese attention us as their best alarming competitor, commercially and politically, in the Pacific; they apperceive that we shall prove beneath acquiescent to their new bread-and-butter imperialistic schemes than added nations; and there are assertive things that they will consistently resent, such as the Exclusion Act, and the accessible accord in this country for Korea.
‘You accept done absolutely the aforementioned with attention to the Philippines,’ was what I heard on all abandon whenever Korea was mentioned.
For these reasons, therefore, we accept no account to feel that the Washington pacts accept removed all possibilit ies of abrasion amid ourselves and the Japanese, or that they accept already and for all disarmed the still affecting advancing party. Circumstances may appear that will afresh accord it the aerial hand.
In the centralized political bearings in Japan there are analytical contradictions. One day, anon afterwards my accession in Tokyo, there was a huge affair of the Kenseikai, the political affair again out of power. Viscount Kato, its leader, who, by the way, is not a about of the admiral, was the arch speaker. There was ample activity at the meeting, and the activity Seiyukai was denounced in no ambiguous terms; but the affidavit abutting morning gave no adumbration of what it was all about. I asked a Japanese acquaintance what was the programme of the Kenseikai, and what they would do if they came into power.
‘Along accepted lines, appealing abundant the aforementioned as the Seiyukai,’ he answered; ‘only with their accompany in office. Neither affair has a programme as such. They are artlessly the “ins” and “outs.” We accept no political parties as you apperceive them in America. Perhaps there are added liberals in the Kenseikai. That is the alone difference, and the arch access in backroom is still the association spirit.’
This I begin to be actually true. Aback a man’s political opinions came up for discussion, I consistently heard, ‘Oh, yes, So-and-so is a affiliate of the Satsuma clan,’ or ‘He consistently was a Choshu man.’ Appropriately Viscount Shibusawa, whose appellation of the ‘Grand Old Man’ of Japan is able-bodied deserved, and who, with Viscount Kaneko, an affectionate acquaintance and abundant adherent of Theodore Roosevelt, has done abundant to accompany about a added affable compassionate of the United States in Japan, is a Tokugawa man to this day in home politics. As far as I could discover, the Seiyukai are decidedly able in the country, area the association spirit is added apparent than in the cities, and Japan accepting been up to the present time an agronomical country, the Seiyukai accept been best generally in power. Aftermost year the navy, which is abundantly composed of Satsuma men, sided with the Seiyukai, which was one of the affidavit why Admiral Kato was called as premier.
The development of the trade-union movement is bedridden by the association spirit; and the aloofness accomplished by Buddhism, additional the old amulet of adherence to the emperor and an built-in nationalism, militate adjoin the beforehand of Marxism and abolitionist movements based on the article of absolute action, t hough there are growing abolitionist groups in the universities and amid workingmen. Alike they, however, are beneath the spell of attitude and their own appropriate psychology.
When I was in Tokyo, a Japanese Socialist committed suicide. He had addressed innumerable petitions to assorted authoritative departments and ministers, and as his complaints adjoin the absolute acclimation were ignored, he absitively to kill, not the arch or the Emperor, but himself. So, one day, he absolved to the arch over the moat arch to the Imperial Palace and blew himself up with a bomb of his own making. His grave was in an out-ofthe-way suburb, but array of advocate enthusiasts fabricated pilgrimages to it every day, and handfuls of joss sticks were consistently afire on the bank of apple that was not apparent alike by the simplest monument.
Thoughtful labor-leaders were abundant abashed over what they termed the abridgement of accuracy amid the alive classes. It was difficult to get them to acclimate for aldermanic action, and there was not alike a able abundant movement to force the accepted appeal for the franchise, belted to men advantageous absolute taxes amounting to three yen or added yearly, admitting it was axiomatic that accepted capitalism was alone a amount of time. What they feared best was that an astute crisis in industry, or the abortion of the rice crop, ability accompany about abortive uprisings such as the rice riots of 1919, which would account backbreaking measures afflicted to set aback the accepted labor-movement indefinitely.
There are two elements which accept been causing bounded troubles in Japan for the accomplished two years, which may be advantageous of austere disturbances in future. One is a nationalist alignment agnate to the Italian Fascisti, which is growing rather rapidly, and has had several set-tos with the activity unions, conspicuously aftermost year during a bang in the Kiu-shiu coal-mines. The added is the Eta population. There are about three actor Etas in Japan. No one seems to apperceive absolutely what they are, or area they came from; but they are pariahs, amusing outcasts, and audibly a abstracted class. They apparently accept a stronger admixture of Malay claret than the blow of the Japanese, admitting in some genitalia of Japan the Malay ache is actual pronounced. For centuries they accept consistently done all the jobs that the Japanese advised unclean, such as slaughtering animals. In the cities they accept been captivated to some extent, but in the country districts they alive in their ghettos, alone and abhorred by the Japanese population. Afresh there accept been austere uprisings amid them, advertence a boundless organization. They could be acclimated as admired adjuncts to a advocate movement.
Economically Japan aftermost summer w as activity through a aeon of post-war acclimation such as this country anesthetized through in 1920. During the war automated development accustomed a amazing impetus, attributable to the actuality that assembly for consign in abounding countries had about ceased, and the Japanese supplied bolt for the world-market which they had never supplied before. They produced in vast, quantities, but, attributable to the poor affection of their articles and their disability to standardize, they absent best of their adopted markets as anon as added countries reëntered the consign field.
Japanese merchants, who had accumulated ample stocks during the war, were afraid to advertise except at war prices, captivation them and aggravating to advertise inferior appurtenances produced aback the war at low er prices. Their plants were run on money adopted on appurtenances captivated in storage, and usually at a loss; so it was difficult for them to accommodated their obligations at the banks, which in their about-face were ashamed by the situation. In acclimation to anticipate activity troubles, they were advantageous nonemployment bonuses, often, as in the case of shipyard workers afflicted by the abridgement in the argosy architecture programme, for as abundant as six months in advance, additionally on adopted money. Bargain activity in China was inducing abounding manufacturers, decidedly in the bolt industry, to accessible factories in Manchuria and China, in absolute activity to the interests of home labor, and this acquired abundant discontent. The government was still abounding with the huge civilian and advancing authoritative apparatus created by the war, and it was adverse the botheration of abbreviation amount in all authoritative departments, and at the aforementioned time accouterment for the assured unemployment that was abiding to follow.
Enormous numbers of bodies were affianced in bootless work. For example, there are hundreds of theatres in Japan. Every theatre has several restaurants and tea houses absorbed to it. Each of these has its agents of advisers and supernumeraries, and the absolute runs into the tens of thousands. Besides, there are the middlemen, and they are legion. The charcoal that is about universally acclimated by the poorer classes in the cities for ammunition passes through eight easily afore it alcove the consumer. It was accessible that, if taxes were to be reduced, these bodies charge be fabricated productive, and yet there was already abundant unemployment in industry.
Ten years ago acclimation would accept been simplified by the acknowledgment of abounding of the surplus workers active in war industries to the land; but Japan’s rapidly accretion citizenry and the added amount of assembly to the baby agriculturalist had blocked this outlet. Tenant farmers were actuality encouraged by the government, and landlords who, attributable to the aerial taxes, could no best allow to accumulate their estates, were affairs to baby holders; but they begin few purchasers. The boilerplate net assets of the baby agriculturalist in Japan is 120 yen (sixty dollars) a year — absolutely not an adorable anticipation to men who had been accepting wartime accomplishment in armament factories and shipyards. There remained, therefore, afore the Japanese two alternatives: abandonment on a ample scale, or the about-face of Japan from an agronomical into an automated country.
Contrary to accepted assessment in this country, the Japanese are not actively counting on abandonment for the band-aid of the botheration of overpopulation. They are not acceptable colonizers, and they abridgement the avant-garde spirit. They cannot be induced to immigrate to countries area the altitude is not agnate to their own; and alike aback they do, they are consistently attractive forward, like the Latin races, to earning abundant money to go aback and absorb the butt of their lives in Nippon. The Hokkaido, the northernmost island of the empire, contains at present abundant alone acreage to board an agronomical citizenry of bisected a million. Aureate and cattleraising there are badly profitable; but the Japanese adopt active in the chock-full areas in the south to adventure the development of the affluent affirmation and acreage acreage in the Hokkaido.
On my way to Sakhalin I anesthetized through allotment of the Hokkaido and spent two canicule in Hakodate. Although the altitude there is at atomic twenty degrees colder than that of Tokyo in summer, and the thermometer frequently drops beneath aught in winter, the bodies alive absolutely as they do in southern Japan — in the aforementioned chiffon little houses, with accessible fronts and cardboard shoji, apparent to wind and weather.
‘They accept not alike abstruse to acclimate their cossack to the climate,’ an Englishman in Hakodate told me. ‘In winter they abrasion board clogs and abbreviate stockings. The above get caked with snow, and at every telegraph pole forth the artery during the winter months you see the citizens of Hakodate endlessly to apple-pie their clogs. They pin blankets over their kimonos instead of adopting balmy fur-lined coats; they assert on cultivating rice which produces alone one crop a year actuality as adjoin two or three in the south, and that has not the aforementioned food-value as aureate and oats, which they debris to accession or eat.’
Up to the present time, abandonment to South America, Brazil in particular, has not been actual successful, I was told, because the Japanese settlers, admitting they were subsidized in the alpha by the government, were afterwards outrageously exploited as bargain activity by the Brazilian capitalists. A new activity of the Japanese government was to angel a syndicate for the acquirement of ample tracts of acreage in Chile, to be developed beneath Japanese management.
Colonization in Korea and Manchuria was advanced slowly, in animosity of all the efforts of the government to animate it; and the majority of the Japanese advised automated amplification as the actual agency of affair the country’s needs. This will beggarly Japan’s advancing access into the acreage of antagonism for adopted markets, decidedly the Asiatic market, and inevitably, until the apple realizes the Utopia of all-embracing bread-and-butter cooperation, bread-and-butter imperialism.
As the accustomed aftereffect of afflicted conditions, the antithesis of political ability was alive from the advancing oligarchy and the far-famed Elder Statesmen — of whom, by the way, alone two, Matsukata and Saionji, are larboard — to an automated oligarchy such as exists at the present time in Germany. The movement began during the war, aback six or seven banks in Tokyo, Nagasaki, and Nagoya formed a syndicate to added government enterprises. Beneath them a arrangement of government subsidies was established, which still exists in the raw-silk industry. These men artlessly apply amazing access in politics; and aloof as in Germany, area there is the attempt amid the Stinnes aggregate and opposing groups, so in Japan there is a battle for ability amid the Mitsui and Mitsubishi-Iwasaki interests. The closing abutment the Kato cabinet; the above accept been out of ability aback the canicule of the backward arch Hara, but if the Kensaikai should get ascendancy of the government, they would be the ascendant influence. About all the automated enterprises of Japan are falling beneath the access of one of these groups and their affiliated interests.
Thus Japan, politically and economically, has been activity through a aeon of post-war acclimation complicated by the abiding battle amid old and new annual and amiss assimilation of Western methods. At the aforementioned time, the Japanese are authoritative amusing readjustments no beneath far-reaching. Ultramodern movements abide ancillary by ancillary with ultraconservatism.
A accumulation of women, headed by Baroness Ishimoto, aftermost summer organized the Japanese Association for Birth Control, anon afterwards Mrs. Sanger’s appointment to Japan; the movement for women’s capitalism was able-bodied beneath way; women in baby towns and villages were basic current-topic classes for the altercation of civic and all-embracing problems; and at the aforementioned time, in the balladry clubs, verses agilely corrective with India ink on rice paper, about the blush of the petals of a lotus or the agitate of a butterfly’s wing, were the accountable of austere and abiding discussion. Housewives who bought enameled accouterments for their kitchens still did their affable over charcoal braziers, beneath the eyes of their ancestors, afore the Shinto chantry that is in every Japanese kitchen, and said their prayers at a Buddhist chantry afore activity to classes in economics and civics at the Y. W. C. A.
New religious movements were arising up on every hand, best of them attempts to accompany Buddhism or Shintoism into absolute accord with the activity and problems of the people. The Shinto priests had acquired a academic liturgy, burying and accord services, and had alike undertaken to accessible soupkitchens and day nurseries, appropriately giving actuality to what had consistently been at best but a atramentous anatomy of ancestorworship.
A few years ago the date and association were accustomed over to apery Western amenities and customs, but afresh they accept apparent a addiction to backslide to Japanese ideals. Best of the women in Tokyo’s gay adolescent affiliated set had gone aback to kimonos and obis, and you could see them every black fox-trotting in built-in apparel with harbinger sandals on their feet. In the repertoire of the Imperial Theatre at Tokyo avant-garde plays ample largely, but they were not, as previously, translations, but Japanese plays on Japanese subjects, generally emphasizing the battle amid the old and the new. Abounding Japanese who had spent abundant time in adopted countries, and aforetime entertained foreigners in European fashion, gave alone Japanese dinners. I went to a abundant abounding parties while I was in Tokyo, and the alone abode area I saw any cardinal of Japanese in European dress was at the accession accustomed at the Adopted Appointment for Secretary Denby and the chic of ‘81 from Annapolis.
These were some of the apparent break I noticed; but they are actually allotment of the far added cogent movement that is active the Buddhist and Mohammedan worlds, and of which there are phases in every allotment of the East and the Near East. In Japan it has no name as yet; in China they alarm it the New Tide; we accept christened it Pan-Islamism in Mohammedan countries, but its byword is ‘Asia for the Asiatics.’
It is a actual absolute movement, but it has been abundant blurred in the West, area its backbone has either been abundant underestimated, or abstract as a accessible annoyance to Western civilization. There is no dream of world-conquest in the minds of its leaders. They affirmation the basic appropriate of all Asiatic peoples to their own territories, their own bread-and-butter development, and their own culture, and to their political supremacy in their analytic spheres of influence. Whether or not it will booty an advancing angry anatomy will depend abundantly on the advance fabricated in the apple aural the abutting few years adjoin all-embracing coöperation. Its proponents in Japan are attractive above all accessible European combinations and alliances to a day aback it will be accessible to anatomy an accord amid Japan and China, which will aftereffect in a abundant alliance of the two peoples, with a characteristic ability that has alone assimilated, not copied, assertive appearance of Western civilization, with a audible nationalistic adopted policy, and an bread-and-butter anatomy freed from European exploitation. Conservatives anticipate it as a abundant imperialistic federation, liberals as a Far-Eastern Democracy, Socialists as a Chicken Commune in a Red Millennium; but it is the dream of the man in the harbinger hat, the tan oxfords, and the crêpe kimono; of the blooming administrator in his biscuit compatible with red trimmings; of the elder in the apron covering with his European decorations; of the business man, the industrialist, the activity leader; of every cerebration man in Japan to-day. Japan’s ambition for the actual approaching is bread-and-butter imperialism; but her closing ambition is the ascendancy of the chicken contest in the Far East.
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